Alternatives

Hands of a person using test tubes

Find information on methods and sources available to address the 3Rs of alternatives. The 3Rs are reduction, refinement, and replacement of animal use in research, testing, and teaching. The concept was developed by Russell and Burch in a 1959 book entitled Principles of Humane Experimental Technique.

A fundamental goal of the Animal Welfare Act and the accompanying regulations is the minimization of animal pain and distress via the consideration of alternatives and alternative methods.

In addition to the resources in this section, use AWIC's Advanced Alternatives Custom Search to find specially selected materials from AWIC and other credible and reliable source.



logo for ICCVAM, the Interagency Coordinating Committee for the Validation of Alternative Methods Regulatory Acceptance of Alternative Methods

This table presents a chronological list of alternative test methods.


Dots part of the logo image for AltTox.org AltTox.org

Humane Society of the United States and Proctor & Gamble.

The goal of this web site is to advance non-animal methods of toxicity testing through online discussion and information exchange.


CCAC Three Rs Microsite

Canadian Council on Animal Care.

This site provides useful information on the three Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement alternatives) to those involved with the use of animals in science.


Altweb logo Alternatives to Animal Testing (Altweb)

Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing.

A gateway to alternatives news, information, and resources on the internet and beyond.


Cover art from the 1986 book entitled "Alternatives to animal use in research, testing, and education" Alternatives to Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education

US Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.

This 1986 report analyzes the scientific, regulatory, economic, legal, and ethical considerations involved in alternative technologies in biomedical and behavioral research, toxicity testing, and education.