The 3Rs

The 3Rs - A Supplementary Selection of References (PDF | 64 KB)

International Journal of Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

A list of selected references about the three Rs - reduction, refinement and replacement.

The Alternatives Concept

USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

An AWIC Bulletin article in which Andrew Rowan discusses the concept of the 3Rs: reduction, refinement, and replacement.

Principles of Humane Experimental Technique

Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing.

In 1959 Russell and Burch classified humane techniques as replacement, reduction, and refinement--now commonly known as the 3Rs.

The Three Rs of Humane Animal Experimentation

Canadian Council on Animal Care.

This module in the CCAC Experimental Animal User Training Core Topics Modules introduces the concept of alternatives in research, teaching and testing, discusses the potentials and limitations of alternatives, and provides examples of alternatives.

Researcher with beakers Animal Welfare: Reduction, Refinement and Replacement

UK Home Office. Animals in Scientific Procedures Division.

Links to information on the 3Rs, including examples of reduction, refinement and replacement, and a concordat on data sharing.

Replacement, Reduction and Refinement – the "Three Rs"

European Commission.

For animals used for scientific purposes in the European Union.

To 3R is Humane (PDF | 1.2 MB)

The Environmental Forum.

This paper suggests that applying good animal welfare to toxicology research can help produce high-quality, reliable data for regulatory decision making.

The 3Rs - The Way Forward

Johns Hopkins University. Center For Alternatives To Animal Testing.

Originally published in 1996, this article discusses alternatives and summarizes ideas raised during a workshop held in Sheringham, UK.

Three Rs

Animal Ethics Infolink.

Provides information on replacement, reduction, and refinement (the 3Rs of Russell and Burch). This page also likns to a strategy on achieving the 3Rs when planning research projects.

The Three Rs: Alternatives to Animal Experiments

UK Parliament. Animals in Scientific Procedures Committee.

Chapter 7 in the full Animals In Scientific Procedures - Report discusses the use and development of the 3Rs and ways in which to promote alternatives in animal research, including the creation of a National Centre.