Refinement of Animal Use - Assessment and Alleviation of Pain and Distress (PDF | 2.45 MB)

International Journal of Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

A review article on methods of clinical pain assessment in animals, including a discussion of pain alleviation techniques.


Animal Ethics Infolink.

Provides information on assessing the impact of any procedure or condition on the well-being of the animal and strategies to eliminate or minimize that impact.

The Importance of Non-statistical Design in Refining Animal Experiments (PDF | 95 KB)

Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching Ltd.

This paper demonstrates strategies that can contribute markedly to minimizing pain and suffering in a research experiment using animals.

Reducing Suffering - Refinement

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

Provides information from the BVA(AWF)/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement.