Refinement of Animal Use - Assessment and Alleviation of Pain and Distress

International Journal of Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

A review article on methods of clinical pain assessment in animals, including a discussion of pain alleviation techniques.


Animal Ethics Infolink.

Provides information on assessing the impact of any procedure or condition on the well-being of the animal and strategies to eliminate or minimize that impact.

The Importance of Non-statistical Design in Refining Animal Experiments

Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching Ltd.

This paper demonstrates strategies that can contribute markedly to minimizing pain and suffering in a research experiment using animals.

Reducing Suffering - Refinement

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

Provides information from the BVA(AWF)/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement.