Replacement of Animal Procedures: Alternatives in Research, Education and Testing (PDF | 4.6 MB)

International Journal of Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

An article discussing the concept of replacement and the role of ECVAM in promoting valid replacement alternatives.


Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments.

Defines replacement alternatives and provides examples. A list of external links provides additional information and examples of replacement.


Animal Ethics Infolink.

Links to documents about replacement alternatives, including tissue culture, perfused organs, tissue slices, and cellular methods.