Alternatives in Toxicology

Alternatives in Allergic Contact Dermatitis Testing

Links to information on alternatives in immunotoxicity- allergic contact dermatitis testing, including the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) for skin sensitization.


Guidance for Industry – Pyrogen and Endotoxins Testing: Questions and Answers (PDF | 174 KB)

DHHS. Food and Drug Administration.

June 2012- Includes guidance regarding the use of alternatives to the rabbit pyrogen test (RPT) and the bacterial endotoxins test (BET) for detecting pyrogens in pharmaceuticals and other products. Examples of alternative assays cited include the recombinant horseshoe crab Factor C asssay and monocyte activation type pyrogen tests (MATs).


Seurat-1: Towards the replacement of in vivo repeated dose systemic toxicity testing

The first step in a European research initiative to address the long term strategic target of "Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing (SEURAT)".


Alternatives in Biologics and Vaccine Testing

Links to information on alternatives in biologics testing, including vaccine testing for humans and animals.


Alternatives in Eye Safety Testing

Information on test methods that reliably identify substances with the potential to cause eye injury and that replace, reduce, and refine animal use.


TSAR: Tracking System for Alternative test methods Review, Validation and Approval in the Context of EU Regulations on Chemicals

European Commission. Joint Research Centre. Institute for Health and Consumer Protection.

A tool to provide information on the status of alternative methods as they progress from scientific protocols to validation for being used in a regulatory context.

Access: free online


Dots part of the logo image for AltTox.org AltTox.org

Humane Society of the United States and Proctor & Gamble.

The goal of this web site is to advance non-animal methods of toxicity testing through online discussion and information exchange.


Guidance Document on Using In Vitro Data to Estimate In Vivo Starting Doses for Acute Toxicity

DHHS. NIH. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. National Institutes of Health.

Describes how to use in vitro cytotoxicity tests to estimate starting doses for acute oral lethality assays.


Report of an ISRTP Workshop: Progress and barriers to incorporating alternative toxicological methods in the US (PDF | 290 KB)

International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.

The objective of this workshop [was] to explore progress to date in implementing new, revised and alternative toxicological test methods across regulatory evaluation frameworks and decision-making programs in the U.S., identify barriers to progress and explore potential bridges to facilitate overcoming such barriers. These barriers may be technical, regulatory, economic or societal. Slides and speakers notes for all presentations are also available.


Chemicals Testing - Guidelines

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Provides internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to characterize potential hazards of new and existing chemical substances.


Progress and Barriers To Incorporating Alternative Toxicological Methods in the U.S.

International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.

The program and presentation slides from a 2005 workshop that examined progress and barriers to date in implementing new, revised and alternative toxicological test methods across regulatory evaluation frameworks and decision-making programs.


Alternative Methods Publications

Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc.

A searchable citation database and links to full-text documents on alternative methods in toxicology.


Animals in Research

Society of Toxicology.

Provides links to presentations, abstracts, articles, position statements and a downloadable brochure on the importance of animals in the science of toxicology.


Regulatory Testing and Animal Welfare

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research.

This collection of journal articles discusses best practices and animal welfare issue in regards to regulatory testing and toxicology test methods.