Handling and Transport

Cattle and Swine Trucking Guide for Exporters (PDF | 898KB)

USDA. Agricultural Marketing Service.

This guidebook is a comprehensive reference on transporting livestock to foreign markets. It covers a variety of topics ranging from a listing of carriers and export inspection facilities to guidelines on care and handling of livestock during export shipment.


Scientific Opinion Concerning the Welfare of Animals during Transport

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

A 2011 review of the scientific literature regarding the transport of animals.


Welfare Aspects of the Long Distance Transportation of Animals

Veterinaria Italiana.

Volume 44(1), 2008 of this quarterly journal provides articles on transporting animals. Subjects include history, public policy development, quality management, design of infrastructures, transport safety and welfare of animals, and training and education.


International Meat Animal Welfare Research Conference

American Meat Institute Foundation.

Contains presentations given at a 2004 meeting on topics including on-farm management, transport of animals, handling non-ambulatory livestock, and housing.


Recommended Animal Handling Guidelines & Audit Guide: 2010 Edition

American Meat Institute.

The AMI's audit guidelines recommend that companies conduct self-audits and third party audits using specific criteria.


List of State Veterinarians (PDF | 117 KB)

United States Animal Health Association.

Provided is a nation listing of state veterinarians and their contact information.


Guidelines for the Humane Transportation of Research Animals

National Research Council.

Meeting the regulatory and animal welfare requirements of research animals in transport can be a complex task. This report recommends best practices for the care of animals in transit including species specific recommendations, thermal requirements, space requirements, and more.


National Center for Import and Export (NCIE)

USDA. APHIS. Veterinary Services.

Provides information on bringing animals into or out of the United States.


Livestock and Poultry Handling and Transport, 1998

USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

Information Resources for Livestock and Poultry Handling and Transport was developed by the Animal Welfare Information Center, in an effort to provide a current guide to the scholarly information available on the handling and transport of farm animals.


Cattle grazing Agricultural Transportation: Meat and Poultry Resources

USDA. Agricultural Marketing Service.

Provides market reports, educational materials, publications, and directories for transport and export of livestock and animal products.


International Animal Export Regulations

USDA. APHIS. Veterinary Services.

Regulations governing the export of animals to other countries.


Guidelines for Humane Handling, Transport and Slaughter of Livestock

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Offers guidance in improving slaughter, livestock productivity and welfare.


Animal Welfare During Transport

European Commission.

Information on the European Commission regulation on the protection of animals during transport in the European Union.


Piglet in grass Handling Pigs - Work Smarter, Not Harder! (PDF | 102KB)

Ontario Farm Animal Council.

A brochure on safely and humanely handling pigs.


Should this Animal Be Loaded? Guidelines for Transporting Cattle, Sheep & Goats (PDF | 107KB)

Ontario Farm Animal Council.

Based on Canadian federal transportation regulations, this brochure provides guidelines for when animals can be humanely transported, transported with special provisions, or not transported at all.


Truck coming down a country road with a barn in the background Trade and Imports of Live Animals in the European Union

European Union.

The general animal health requirements that are applicable to both imports and intra-community trade are laid down in specific Council Directives that can be found on this site.


Should this Pig be Loaded? (PDF | 107KB)

Ontario Farm Animal Council.

Based on Canadian livestock transportation regulations, this brochure provides guidance on which animals can or cannot be transported.


Welfare of Animals During Transport: Details for Horses, Pigs, Sheep and Cattle

European Commission. Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Welfare.

Behavioral and physiological changes that occur during transport stress are reviewed as well as effects of transport on disease risk later in life.


Recommended Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Farm Animals: Transportation (PDF | 848 KB)

Canadian Agri-Food Research Council.

This Canadian Code of Practice, a nationally developed guideline, contains recommendations for handling, transporting and processing of farm animals.


Livestock Transportation Regulation Alberta, Canada

Canadian Legal Information Institute.

Canadian regulation governing the transportation of livestock under the Livestock and Livestock Products Act.


The Animal Welfare Group

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Biosecurity New Zealand

Full text Codes of Practice and recommendations for minimum standards for livestock and other species are available at this site. Humane treatment of livestock during transport, slaughter, and sale yards covered.


Standards for the Microclimate Inside Animal Road Transport Vehicles (PDF | 295 KB)

European Food Safety Authority.

A detailed report defining thermal zones for farm animals in transport. Recommendations for ventilation, humidity, and temperature control requirements in farm animal transport vehicles.


Behavior of Cattle, Pigs, Buffalo and Antelope During Handling and Transport

Colorado State University.

Provides information about the humane handling and behavior of livestock during transport. Information from Dr. Temple Grandin, Department of Animal Science.


Effect of Transport on Meat Quality and Animal Welfare of Cattle, Pigs, Sheep, Horses, Deer, and Poultry

Colorado State University.

Provides information about the handling of livestock during transport and the effects of animal stress on meat quality. Information from Dr. Temple Grandin, Department of Animal Science.


Farmed Animal Welfare During Transport

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) United Kingdom.

The welfare of animals are central to Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) work of protecting and improving livestock transport. Provides guidance documents to ensure high standards and humane treatment.


Certified Livestock Transport

Alberta Farm Animal Care Association (AFAC) Canada.

A comprehensive training course and support service for livestock truckers, shippers and receivers. It focuses on the humane and safe relocation of livestock and the regulatory requirements for Canada and the United States.


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