Pain and Distress

International Veterinary Information Service (IVIS)

Provides free access to online information (electronic books, proceedings, calendar of events) for veterinarians, veterinary students and animal health professionals worldwide.


Pain in Farm Animals

International Veterinary Academy of Pain Management.

Lists signs to look for that indicate pain or discomfort in farm animals. A brief discussion of causes and a list of treatments are provided.


Guidelines for the Recognition and Assessment of Animal Pain

University of Edinburgh. Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies.

Provides a definition of pain as well as information on how pain is produced, how pain is assessed, and how pain is relieved.


Recognizing Pain in Animals

National Academies of Science. Institute for Laboratory Animal Research.

The National Academies have developed a free online resource to help those who care for and use laboratory animals, farm animals, and pets to prevent, recognize, and alleviate pain in different types of animals, from non-human primates to fish. The web site is related to a 2009 report on the Recognition and Alleviation of Pain in Laboratory Animals.


Farm Animal Pain

International Veterinary Academy of Pain Management.

Lists signs that indicate pain or discomfort in farm animals. A brief discussion of causes and list of treatments are given.


Information Resources on Farm Animal Pain for Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees

USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

Links are available to full text articles published in the AWIC Bulletin on recognition of pain, anesthesia, and analgesia in farm animals.


International Veterinary Information Service (IVIS)

Provides free access to online information (electronic books, proceedings, calendar of events) for veterinarians, veterinary students and animal health professionals related to farm animals. Book chapters can be printed on a desktop printer for easy reading.


Beef cattle Welfare on the Farm: Treating Pain and Distress in Food Animals

American Veterinary Medical Association.

General comments regarding the current status of veterinary guidelines regarding pain in farm animals.