Legislative History of the Animal Welfare Act: 1980s

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Public Law (Amendments)


"Food Security Act of 1985." (Public Law 99-198), United States Statutes at Large. Subtitle F - Animal Welfare; Sections 1751-1758. Approved 23 December 1985.
Summary: Also called "The Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act" and enacted December 23, 1985, this section clarifies what is meant by "humane care" by mentioning specifics such as sanitation, housing, and ventilation. It directs the Secretary of Agriculture to establish regulations to provide exercise for dogs and an adequate physical environment to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates. It specifies that pain and distress must be minimized in experimental procedures and that alternatives to such procedures be considered by the principle investigator. It also defines practices that are considered to be painful. No animal can be used in more than one major operative experiment with recovery (exceptions are listed). The establishment of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) is introduced with a description of its roles, composition, and responsibilities to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). Also included is the formation of an information service at the National Agricultural Library to assist those regulated by the act in prevention of unintended duplication of research, employee training, searching for ways to reduce or replace animal use, and to provide information on how to decrease pain and distress. The final section explains the penalties for release of trade secrets by regulators and the regulated community.



Hearings


Committee on Science and Technology , Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Technology. Humane Care and Development of Substitutes for Animals in Research Act Hearing, 4 May 1982. Washington: Government Printing Office, 64 p.

House of Representatives. Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Health and the Environment. Humane Care for Animals in Research Hearing, 9 December 1982. Washington: Government Printing Office, 192 p.

United States Senate. Committee On Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Hearing, 20 July 1983. Washington: Government Printing Office, 179 p.

House of Representatives. Committee on Agriculture, Subcommittee on Department Operations, Research, and Foreign Agriculture. Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act; And Enforcement of the Animal Welfare Act by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Hearing, 19 September 1984. Washington: Government Printing Office, 323 p.
NAL Call Number: KF27.A33277 1984d



Congressional Reports


House of Representatives. Committee on Science and Technology, Humane Care and Development of Substitutes for Animals in Research Act (to accompany H.R. 6928). (House Report No. 97-777; 19 August 1982). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1982. 19 p.
Abstract: ... to promote the development of nonanimal methods of research, experimentation, and testing, and to assure humane care of animals used in scientific research, experimentation, and testing...

1985 Amendments, Joint Explanatory State of the Committee of Conference (to accompany H.R. 2100). (House Conference Report No. 99-447; 16 December 1985). Washington: Government Printing Office, 1985.



Congressional Record


Dole, Sen. [KS]. "Humane Care and Development of Substitutes for Animals in Research Act." Congressional Record, 23 September 1982. p. 24863-24864.

Dole, Sen. [KS]. "Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act." Congressional Record, 2 March 1983. p. 3500-3502.

Hatch, Sen. [UT]. "Animal Welfare in Research Study Act of 1983." Congressional Record, 24 March 1983. p. 7220-7221.

Dodd, Sen. [CT]. "Animal Welfare Research Study of 1983 - S. 964." Congressional Record, 21 April 1983. p. 9530-9531.

Foglietta, Rep. [PA]. "Medical Research of Dubious Necessity." Congressional Record, 26 July 1983.

Lantos, Rep. [CA]. "They Shoot Dogs, Don't They?" Congressional Record, 26 July 1983. p. 21401-21402.

Parris, Rep. [VA]. "Parris Protests Cruel Treatment of Dogs for Experiments." Congressional Record, 26 July 1983. p. 21042.

Rose, Rep. [NC]. "Defense Department Proposes Maiming Helpless Animals in the Name of Science." Congressional Record, 26 July 1983. p. 20852.

Lantos, Rep. [CA]. "Animal Welfare Gains Advocates." Congressional Record, 2 August 1983. p. 22374-22375.

Lantos, Rep. [CA]. "Stopping Useless Animal Research." Congressional Record, 15 September 1983. p. 24511.

Lantos, Rep. [CA]. "Congress Backs Down on Shooting Animals." Congressional Record, 18 November 1983. p. 34911.

Pell, Sen. [RI]. "Humane Treatment of Animals." Congressional Record, 8 March 1984. p. 4923-2924.

Lantos, Rep. [CA]. "World Day for Laboratory Animals." Congressional Record, 25 April 1984.

Lantos, Rep. [CA]. "Peninsula Humane Society Statement on Animal Protection."Congressional Record, 21 May 1984.

Brown, Rep. [CA]. "Improving Standards for Laboratory Animals."Congressional Record, 24 May 1984. p. 14398-14400.



Federal Register Notices


"Animal Welfare Standards; Laboratory Animals, Solicitation of information for drafting proposed regulations and standards under Pub. L. 99-198." Federal Register Vol. 51, No. 45 (7 March 1986), 7950.
Summary: ... commonly known as the "Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act," amends the Animal Welfare Act. This law was signed by the President on December 23, 1985, and requires the Secretary to develop and promulgate standards and regulations in certain areas of animal care and use not previously regulated. In order to develop more workable and equitable regulations and standards, the Department is soliciting comments and suggestions.

"Animal Welfare; Proposed Rules, Proposed Rules." Federal Register Vol. 52, No 61 (31 March 1987), 10292-10322.
Summary: This document proposes to amend Part 1 - "Definition of Terms." The changes comply with the amendments to the Animal Welfare Act contained in Pub. L. 99-198, "The Food Security Act of 1985" enacted December 23, 1985. This proposal would also expand the list of definitions in order to facilitate enforcement of the Act and the regulations and to inform the public of the Act's requirements. These proposed amendments complement the changes the Agency is proposing to Parts 2 and 3, some of which are also required by Pub. L. 99-198.

"Animal Welfare; Proposed Rules, Proposed Rule." Federal Register Vol. 54, No. 49 (15 March 1989), 10822-10954.
Summary: This is a request for supplemental comments on the narrow issue of the interrelationship between Part 1 of the Animal Welfare Act regulations and our proposal to amend Part 3 of the regulations. We are proposing to amend Part 1 of the regulations concerning animal welfare, in order to update, clarify and expand the list of definitions. These changes are intended to inform the public of the scope of the regulations and to facilitate enforcement of them. These changes, many of which are required by amendments enacted on December 23, 1985, to the Animal Welfare Act complement changes we are proposing to Part 2 of the regulations concerning animal welfare (Regulations) and to Part 3 of the Regulations concerning animal welfare (standards).

"Animal Welfare; Final Rules; 9 CFR Parts 1, 2 and 3, Final Rule." Federal Register Vol. 54, No. 168 (31 August 1989), 36112-36163.
Also online: http://awic.nal.usda.gov/final-rules-animal-welfare-9-cfr-parts-1-and-2 (Part 1) and http://awic.nal.usda.gov/final-rules-animal-welfare-9-cfr-parts-2-and-3 (Parts 2 and 3)
Summary: Often referred to as the "Preamble" to the Animal Welfare Act amendments of 1985, the explanations of the regulations are used to identify the intent of the regulations published in Title 9, Code of Federal Regulations. This issue contains final regulations developed to enact the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act covering the Definitions and Regulations sections. Extensive commentary is provided to respond to public comments about each of the proposed regulations. Comments and final regulations are provided in many areas including the structure and functions of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee; the principal investigator's consideration of alternatives that reduce, refine, or replace animal use; records; licensing; registration; stolen animals; and research facilities.



Introduced Legislation


"Humane Methods of Research Act." (H.R. 6847), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 18 March 1980.
Summary: Amends the Animal Welfare Act to require any research facility using live animals for research, testing, teaching, or for the production of medical or veterinary products to utilize certain methods of research and testing which minimize the pain inflicted upon such animals.

"Humane Methods of Research Act." (H.R. 220), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 5 January 1981.
Summary: To promote the development of research, experimentation, and testing that minimize the use of, and pain and suffering to, live animals.

"Research Modernization Act." (H.R. 556), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 5 January 1981.
Summary: To establish within the National Institutes of Health a National Center for Alternative Research to develop and coordinate alternative methods of research and testing which do not involve the use of live animals.

"Protection of Animals in Research Act." (H.R. 930), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 19 January 1981.
Summary: To establish the Commission for the Protection of Animals in Research which will (1) study and recommend alternatives to current procedures in which live animals are used experimentally in laboratory research and testing; and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of laboratory research and testing using such alternatives.

"Humane Methods of Research Act." (H.R. 2110), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 25 February 1981.
Summary: To promote the development of methods of research, experimentation, and testing that minimize the use of, and pain and suffering to, live animals.

"A bill to amend the Animal Welfare Act to insure the humane treatment of laboratory animals." (H.R. 4406), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 4 August 1981.
Summary: Amends the Animal Welfare Act to require any research facility using live animals for research, testing, teaching, or for the production of medical or veterinary products to utilize certain methods of research and testing which minimize the pain inflicted upon such animals.

"Humane Care and Development of Substitutes for Animals in Research Act." (H.R. 6245), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 29 April 1982.
Summary: To promote the development of nonanimal methods of research, experimentation, and testing, and to assure humane care of animals used in scientific research, experimentation, and testing.

"Humane Care and Development of Substitutes for Animals in Research Act." (H.R. 6928), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 4 August 1982.
Summary: To promote the development of nonanimal methods of research, experimentation, and testing, and to assure humane care of animals used in scientific research, experimentation, and testing.

"A concurrent resolution pertaining to the methods used on animals in research." (H.Con.Res.38), Introduced 22 January 1981.
Summary: Expresses the sense of Congress that the Federal Government should take steps to develop new research methods to complement or eliminate current methods involving the direct or indirect use of animals and that no Federal funds should be provided for research projects involving the use of animals if other methods can be successfully substituted.

"Humane Care and Development of Substitutes for Animals in Research Act." (S. 2948), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 23 September 1982.
Summary: To promote the development of nonanimal methods of research, experimentation, and testing, and to assure humane care of animals used in scientific research, experimentation, and testing

"Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act." (S. 657), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 2 March 1983.
Summary: To amend the Animal Welfare Act to ensure the proper treatment of laboratory animals.

"Humane Methods of Research Act." (H.R. 2633), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 20 April 1983.

"Resolution Concerning the Proper Treatment of Laboratory Animals." (H. Res. 170), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 21 April 1983.
Summary: Concerning the proper treatment of laboratory animals

"Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act." (H.R. 5725), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 24 May 1984.
Summary: To amend the AWA to ensure the proper treatment of laboratory animals.

"Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act." (H.R. 2653), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 4 June 1985.
Summary: To amend the AWA to ensure the proper treatment of laboratory animals.

"A bill to amend the Animal Welfare Act to establish a federal penalty for damaging or destroying an animal research facility." (H.R. 2654), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 4 June 1985.
Summary: Amends the Animal Welfare Act to establish criminal penalties for damaging or destroying research facilities.

"Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act." (S. 1233), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 4 June 1985.
Summary: To amend the AWA to ensure the proper treatment of laboratory animals.

"Animals in Laboratories Protection Act of 1985." (S. 1792), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 25 October 1985.
Summary: To amend the AWA to ensure the proper treatment of laboratory animals.

"A bill to amend the Animal Welfare Act with respect to the issuance of temporary restraining orders and injunctions in certain cases." (H.R. 241), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 6 January 1986.
Summary: Amends the Animal Welfare Act to empower the Secretary of Agriculture to request the Attorney General to obtain a temporary restraining order for violations of such Act or of regulations promulgated under such Act.

"A bill to amend section 19 of the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2149)." (H.R. 4535), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 9 April 1986.
Summary: Amends the Animal Welfare Act to permit citizen suits to compel enforcement of such Act. Authorizes the court in such suits to award litigation expenses, including attorney fees to: (1) a prevailing plantiff; or (2) a prevailing defendant if such action is found to be frivolous, unreasonable, or without foundation.

"Pet Protection Act of 1986." (H.R. 4871), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 21 May 1986.
Summary: To prevent Federal funds received under any grant from the National Institutes of Health from being used to obtain animals from animal shelters for research purposes.

"Anti-Live Animal Lure Act 1986." (H.R. 5402), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 12 August 1986.
Summary: To prohibit the sponsoring, exhibiting, or transporting to sponsor or exhibit, of an animal or dog in any coursing venture.

"A bill to enhance the ability of the Secretary of Agriculture to enforce the Animal Welfare Act and the regulations issued thereunder." (H.R. 5678), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 8 October 1986.
Summary: Amends the Animal Welfare Act to empower the Secretary of Agriculture to request the Attorney General to obtain a temporary restraining order for violations of such Act or of regulations promulgated under such Act.

"Pet Protection Act of 1987." (H.R. 778), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 27 January 1987.
Summary: To establish, with respect to any grant or research protocol of the National Institutes of Health, a restriction that any person obtaining or using for any research purpose any animal acquired from any animal shelter shall not be eligible to receive any such grant or research protocol.

"Anti-Live Animal Lure Act of 1987." (H.R. 1433), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 5 March 1987.
Summary: To prohibit the sponsoring, exhibiting, or transporting to sponsor or exhibit of an animal or dog in any coursing venture.

"A bill to amend section 19 of the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2149)." (H.R. 1770), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 5 March 1987.
Summary: Amends the Animal Welfare Act to permit citizen suits to compel enforcement of such Act. Authorizes the court in such suits to award litigation expenses, including attorney fees, to: (1) a prevailing plaintiff; or (2) a prevailing defendant if such action is found to be frivolous, unreasonable, or without foundation.

"A bill to amend the Animal Welfare Act to prohibit the unnecessary surgery or alteration of animals." (H.R. 2594), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 3 June 1987.
Summary: To prohibit the performance on animals of injuring or disfiguring surgery.

"A bill to amend the Animal Welfare Act to protect farm animals used in non-agricultural research." (H.R. 2593), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 3 June 1987.
Summary: Amends the Animal Welfare Act with regard to the use of horses or farm animals for research.

"Pet Protection Act of 1987." (S. 1457), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 30 June 1987.
Summary: To establish, with respect to any grant or research protocol of the National Institutes of Health, a restriction that any person obtaining or using for any research purpose any animal acquired from any animal shelter shall not be eligible to receive any such grant or research protocol.

"A bill to amend the Animal Welfare Act to protect farm animals used in nonagricultural research and to prohibit the unnecessary surgery or alteration of animals." (H.R. 3233), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 7 August 1987.
Summary: Amends the Animal Welfare Act with regard to the use of horses or farm animals for research. Prohibits the performance on animals of injuring or disfiguring surgery, or surgery to make the animal suitable for purposes of entertainment.

"Pet Theft Act of 1988." (S. 2353), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 29 April 1988.
Summary: To amend the Federal Laboratory Animal Welfare Act to prohibit the selling of stolen dogs and cats, and for other purposes.

"Pet Theft Act of 1988." (S. 2703), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 9 August 1988.
Summary: To Amend the Animal Welfare Act to prohibit the selling of stolen dogs and cats, and for other purposes

"To amend section 19 of the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2149)." (H.R. 2345), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 9 August 1988.
Summary: Amends the Animal Welfare Act to permit citizen suits to compel enforcement of such Act. Authorizes the court in such suits to award litigation expenses, including attorney fees, to: (1) a prevailing plaintiff; or (2) a prevailing defendant if such action is found to be frivolous, unreasonable, or without foundation.

"To amend the Animal Welfare Act to include mice, rats, and birds within the definition of animals protected under the Act." (H.R. 2766), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 27 June 1988.
Summary: Amends the Animal Welfare Act to include mice, rats, and birds within the definition of animals protected under such Act.

"Animal Welfare Protection Act of 1989." (H.R. 425), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 3 January 1989.
Summary: Amends the Animal Welfare Act to empower the Secretary of Agriculture to request the Attorney General to obtain a temporary restraining order for violations of such Act or of regulations promulgated under such Act.

"Anti-Live Animal Lure Act of 1989." (H.R. 578), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 20 January 1989.
Summary: Amends the Animal Welfare Act to prohibit the sponsoring, exhibiting, or transporting to sponsor or exhibit of an animal or dog in any coursing venture.

"Greyhound Racing and Training Control Act of 1989." (H.R. 1064), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 22 February 1989.
Summary: Amends the Animal Welfare Act to include facilities that are used for greyhound racing or race training within the definition of "exhibitor".

"Animal Research Facilities Protection Act of 1989." (S. 727), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 7 April 1989.
Summary: Amends the Food Security Act of 1985 to make it unlawful for any person to: (1) steal or cause the unauthorized release or intentional loss of any research facility animal; (2) damage, vandalize, or steal any animal research facility property; (3) break into a facility with an intent to destroy, alter, duplicate, or obtain unauthorized possession of records, equipment, or animals; (4) receive, conceal, or retain any converted or stolen material, equipment, or animals from a research facility; or (5) enter or remain in a research facility with the intent to commit an act prohibited by this Act.

"Animal Welfare Improvements Act of 1989." (H.R. 3223), Unenacted Bill. Introduced on 6 September 1989.
Summary: Amends the Animal Welfare Act to authorize: (1) citizen suits to compel enforcement of such Act; and (2) suits by animal research facilities injured by reason of violations of such Act. Precludes recovery by such facilities if such injury leads to the conviction of any person for a violation of any Federal regulation relating to the handling, care, treatment, or transportation of animals by any research facility.