"APHIS continues to recommend a database search as the most effective and efficient method for demonstrating compliance with the requirement to consider alternatives to painful/distressful procedures." (USDA, APHIS, Animal Care Policy #12)
Literature Searching and Databases
Why Conduct Literature Searches for Alternatives?
USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.
Article reviews the legislation, rationale, and benefits of the alternatives literature search.
The EURL ECVAM search guide -- Good search practice on animal alternatives: re-edition (2013)
EURL ECVAM (European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing)
Developed to inform and support untrained database users to find high quality information on relevant alternative strategies and methods to animal experiments in an easy yet systematic way.
Searching for 3Rs Information - Published Literature Sources (PDF | 285KB)
Information Managers in the Pharmaceutical Industry.
A 2002 document with information on core 3Rs journals, database details, a list of useful keywords, and an example of a search strategy.
Guide to Searching for Alternatives to the Use of Laboratory Animals
Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments.
A FRAME guide to literature searching, including terms, strategies, and links to useful information on the internet.
Search for Alternatives: A Step-by-Step Approach to an Alternatives Search
Developed by the Altweb Project Team, this website provides information on databases, policies and regulations, and sample searches.
Three Rs Search Guide
Canadian Council on Animal Care.
Provides detailed instructions on how to conduct a 3Rs information search, including questions to assess if your 3Rs search is complete.
Current Status and Future Developments of Databases on Alternative Methods (PDF | 93 KB)
A 1998 international report from ECVAM [now EURL ECVAM] that lists factual databases related to alternatives, what they offer, lack, and recommendations for improvements.
AC Policy 12: Consideration of Alternatives to Painful/Distressful Procedures
USDA. APHIS. Animal Care.
Provides guidance on the animal welfare regulations requirement to provide a written narrative of the consideration of alternatives to painful and distressful procedures.