Refinement of Animal Use - Assessment and Alleviation of Pain and Distress (PDF | 2.45 MB)

International Journal of Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

A review article on methods of clinical pain assessment in animals, including a discussion of pain alleviation techniques.

Anesthesia and Analgesia for Companion and Laboratory Animals.

USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

This bibliography that provides a review of literature (1992 to 2000) on anesthesia and analgesia.

Analgesic Best Practice for the Use of Animals in Research and Teaching - An Interpretive Literature Review (PDF | 248 KB)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

A 2002 literature review of pain and the use of anesthetics and analgesics for animals used in research and teaching.

Assessment and Alleviation of Post-Operative Pain

USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

This article, originally published in the CALAS/ACSAL Newsletter Vol 30 #5 October 1996, discusses the alleviation of post-operative pain in laboratory animals as an important goal in all research.

Pain - Assessment, Alleviation and Avoidance in Laboratory Animals (PDF | 61 KB)

Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching Ltd.

Provides an overview of animal pain so that effective analgesia can be administered appropriately.

Swine Anesthesia and Analgesia, 2011 (PDF | 2.17MB)

USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

This resource was developed to provide investigators, laboratory animal veterinarians, technicians, and others, working with swine with access to baseline literature on anesthesia and analgesia.