Recognition and Assessment


Refinement of Animal Use - Assessment and Alleviation of Pain and Distress (PDF | 2.45 MB)

International Journal of Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

A review article on methods of clinical pain assessment in animals, including a discussion of pain alleviation techniques.

Guidelines for the Recognition and Assessment of Animal Pain

University of Edinburgh. Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies.

Provides a definition of pain as well as information on how pain is produced, how pain is assessed, and how pain is relieved.

Tutorial: Recognising Post-Operative Pain in Animals

Newcastle University. Assessing the Health and Welfare of Laboratory Animals.

This online training site provides an introduction to recognizing post-operative pain in animals. Videos, images, and text are included.

Recognizing Pain in Animals

National Academies of Science. Institute for Laboratory Animal Research.

The National Academies have developed a free online resource to help those who care for and use laboratory animals, farm animals, and pets to prevent, recognize, and alleviate pain in different types of animals, from non-human primates to fish. The web site is related to a 2009 report on the Recognition and Alleviation of Pain in Laboratory Animals.

Assessment and Alleviation of Post-Operative Pain

USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

This article, originally published in the CALAS/ACSAL Newsletter Vol 30 #5 October 1996, discusses the alleviation of post-operative pain in laboratory animals as an important goal in all research.

Distress in Animals: Is it Fear, Pain or Physical Stress?

Colorado State University. Department of Animal Science.

This paper refutes claims that feeling pain is dependent on brain size and complexity. Instead, it suggests that a reasonable criteria for assessing pain-induced suffering is whether or not the animal actively seek pain relief.

Pain - Assessment, Alleviation and Avoidance in Laboratory Animals (PDF | 61 KB)

Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching Ltd.

Provides an overview of animal pain so that effective analgesia can be administered appropriately.

Recognizing and Assessing Pain, Suffering and Distress in Laboratory Animals (PDF | 1.26 MB)

International Journal of Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

This 2002 paper presents the results of a survey undertaken in the United Kingdom to evaluate how animal pain and distress are recognized and assessed in scientific procedures.

Information Resources on Farm Animal Pain for Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees

USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

Links are available to full text articles published in the AWIC Bulletin on recognition of pain, anesthesia, and analgesia in farm animals.

Signs, Causes and Treatment of Pain

Colorado State University. International Veterinary Academy of Pain Management.

This is general information regarding signs, causes, and treatment of pain in animals, such as dogs, cats, farm animals, and horses. There is a video that explains how animals experience pain. This site is not a substitute for communication between an animal owner and their veterinarian.

Beef cattle Welfare on the Farm: Treating Pain and Distress in Food Animals

American Veterinary Medical Association.

General comments regarding the current status of veterinary guidelines regarding pain in farm animals.