Fish, Reptiles, and Amphibians

Diseases of Zebrafish in Research Facilities

Zebrafish International Resource Center

Provides an overview of the common diseases of zebrafish as they occur in research facilities, including information on the characteristics, methods for diagnosis, and suggestions for control and treatment.


Zebrafish Zebrafish, 2010 (PDF | 8.55MB)

USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

A bibliography and Web site resources related to the housing, husbandry, health, welfare of zebrafish and its use as a biomedical model.


Logo for fishwelfare.net fishwelfare.net

Provides information about fish welfare and serves as a reference point for information related to fish-welfare research initiatives.


Amphibians, Fish & Reptiles Used in Biomedical Research

USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

This information resource is an attempt to collect in a single volume much of the current information regarding the care and use of these alternative animal models.


Guidelines for the Use of Fishes in Research (PDF | 729 KB)

American Fisheries Society.

These guidelines provide general recommendations on field and laboratory activities, such as sampling, holding, and handling fishes; information on regulations and permits; and advice concerning ethical questions, such as perceptions of pain or discomfort that may be experienced by experimental subjects.


Guidelines on the Care and Use of Fish in Research, Teaching and Testing (PDF | 421 KB)

Canadian Council on Animal Care.

These guidelines cover the following topics: facility design, facility management, operation and maintenance, capture, acquisition and transport, husbandry, health and disease control, experimental procedures, euthanasia, and disposition of fish after study.


Care and Handling of Xenopus laevis

University of Arizona.

This IACUC learning module provides information on the humane restraint, handling, and care of Xenopus used in research and teaching.


Fish, Amphibians and Reptiles

ILAR Journal.

This 1995 issue of the ILAR Journal (Volume 37, Issue 4) presented five papers on these animals in the laboratory environment.


Guidance on the Housing and Care of the African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis (2005)

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Research Animals Department.

A report on how husbandry and procedures can be refined to reduce suffering and improve welfare of Xenopus laevis frogs.


The Zebrafish Model

Animal Lab News

This paper discusses the history of using zebrafish as research models.


The Zebrafish Information Network (ZFIN)

University of Oregon.

An online resource for zebrafish researchers that provides genetic, genomic and developmental information; maintains data sets of zebrafish research informaiton; facilitates the use of zebrafish as models for human biology; and links the zebrafish information to corresponding data in other databases. Search for scholarly publications in the Publications section.

Content types: journal articles, book chapters, books, reviews, abstracts, movies, etc.
Access: free online


A box turtle in the grass Reptiles, 2008

USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

A bibliography related to the husbandry, health and welfare of reptiles.


Zebrafish: The Challenge of Standardization in a Maturing Research Model

Animal Lab News.

Discussion of scientifically-based care and use standards for zebrafish.


Cover of fish welfare publication Fish, 2003

USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

A comprehensive resource on fish used in research and aquaculture covering pain and distress, husbandry, guidelines, and regulatory issues.


Frogs and Toads as Experimental Animals (PDF | 32.4 KB)

Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching Ltd.

Information on housing, environmental conditions, euthanasia, breeding, blood collection, marking, drug administration, diseases, and parasites of frogs and toads in research environments.


The Aquatic Library

Biofilter Systems.

An index of aquatic and aquaculture information found on the internet. Includes links to information on diseases, husbandry, ponds, wastewater, fish farming, and aquariums.


Zebrafish Husbandry Association

A non-profit organization devoted to promoting and developing zebrafish husbandry standards through education, collaboration, and publication


Amphibians, 2008

USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

A bibliography related to the husbandry, health and welfare of amphibians.


Aquatic Animal Training Courses

The Canadian Aquaculture Institute.

Online training course for institutional animal users specializing in aquatic animals. The course are offered in accordance with the Canadian Council on Animal Care's National Institutional Animal User Training program syllabus.


Recommendations for the Care of Amphibians and Reptiles in Academic Institutions

National Academy Press.

This 1992 publication covers the biology of amphibians and reptiles, recommendations for the physical and biological environment of ectotherms, marking individuals, breeding, medical care, and health precautions for animals and caretakers.


Zebrafish Developmental Staging Series

Zebrafish Information Network.

Images and information from 4th edition of The Zebrafish Book.


Caring for African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis)

American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

This program is designed to provide instruction in the principles and techniques for humane restraint, handling and care of Xenopus.


Evolution of Standards in the Care and Use of Zebrafish

Animal Lab News.

The authors describe standards for the care of zebrafish used as animal models in research settings.


Trans-NIH Zebrafish Initiative

National Institutes of Health.

Provides a central information resource, focusing on major NIH-organized zebrafish initiatives.


Guidelines for Use of Live Amphibians and Reptiles in Field and Laboratory Research (PDF | 92 KB)

American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

These guidelines are intended for use by researchers, educators, and resource managers from universities and colleges, zoological parks, research institutions, natural resource agencies, and consultants to private or public institutions and agencies.


Zebrafish Early Development

University of Massachusetts Amherst.

Photos of stages of development in zebrafish.


Pages