Wildlife in Field StudiesFrequently Asked Questions: PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
NIH. Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare.
Guidelines to the Use of Wild Birds in Research
The Ornithological Council.
These guidelines include current information about techniques relevant to birds and are formulated with consideration to animal welfare and research needs.
Wildlife Research and the IACUC
USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.
An overview of Federal laws and regulations affecting wildlife research and the responsibilities of the animal care committee when reviewing wildlife studies.
Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the Use of Wild Mammals in Research (PDF | 180 KB)
American Society of Mammalogists.
These guidelines take into account both the welfare of subject animals and the research needs of field investigators for whom guidelines for laboratory animal care generally do not apply. Updates the 2007 version.
Guidelines for the Use of Fishes in Research (PDF | 729 KB)
American Fisheries Society.
These guidelines provide general recommendations on field and laboratory activities, such as sampling, holding, and handling fishes; information on regulations and permits; and advice concerning ethical questions, such as perceptions of pain or discomfort that may be experienced by experimental subjects.
Guidelines for Use of Live Amphibians and Reptiles in Field Research (PDF | 92 KB)
American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.
Guidelines on techniques that are known to be humane and effective in the conduct of field research.
Wildpro® Electronic Encyclopaedia
Wildlife Information Network (WIN).
Freely searchable online, this site provides information on the health and management of captive and free-living wild animals and emerging infectious diseases.
Animal Ethics Infolink.
Strategies from the New South Wales, Australia Animal Research Review Panel on issues such as trapping, collection of voucher specimens, studies involving feral animals, and ways in which the 3Rs can be applied in field studies.
Restraint and Handling of Captive Wildlife (PDF | 45 KB)
Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching Ltd.
This article emphasizes basic principles of restraint and the use of appropriate, well-maintained equipment with the assistance of competent, experienced staff.
National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research.
NC3Rs provides a section on wildlife research on their information portal, including links to references and relevant legislation.
Guidelines on the Care and Use of Wildlife (PDF | 1.11 MB)
Canadian Council on Animal Care.
Information on the care and use of wildlife for research, management and operational procedures. The CCAC also provides these additional resources:
Live Animal Capture and Handling Guidelines for Wild Mammals, Birds, Amphibians & Reptiles
Province of British Columbia. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks.
Provides standards for conducting research using wild animals. Includes a chapter on personnel safety and health.