Find information on methods and sources available to address the 3Rs of alternatives. The 3Rs are reduction, refinement, and replacement of animal use in research, testing, and teaching. The concept was developed by Russell and Burch in a 1959 book entitled Principles of Humane Experimental Technique.
A fundamental goal of the Animal Welfare Act and the accompanying regulations is the minimization of animal pain and distress via the consideration of alternatives and alternative methods.
In addition to the resources in this section, use AWIC's Advanced Alternatives Custom Search to find specially selected materials from AWIC and other credible and reliable source.