Zoos, circuses, and marine mammal parks are regulated under the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations and inspected for compliance on a regular basis. Wildlife is not regulated unless exhibited to the public or used in research or teaching.
Zoo, Circus and Marine Animals
Animal Welfare Act and Regulations
The Animal Welfare Act was signed into law in 1966. It is the only Federal law in the United States that regulates the treatment of animals in research, exhibition, transport, and by dealers. Other laws, policies, and guidelines may include additional species coverage or specifications for animal care and use, but all refer to the Animal Welfare Act as the minimum acceptable standard. The Act is enforced by the USDA, APHIS, Animal Care agency.
Center for Zoo Animal Welfare
Detroit Zoological Society.
A resource center for zoo animal welfare knowledge, research and best practices.
USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.
This bibliography covers tiger biology, behavior, nutrition, feeds, reproduction, breeding and genetics, diseases, parasites, hand rearing, veterinary care and husbandry.
Animal Welfare Act Guidelines for County and State Fairs (PDF | 36 KB)
USDA. APHIS. Animal Care.
The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) requires people who exhibit animals to the public for compensation to be licensed with the USDA. The AWA also excludes certain activities from this requirement, including the exhibition of agricultural animals for the purposes of promoting agricultural arts, sciences, and production. This means that agricultural exhibits at State and county fairs are exempt. However, some exhibition activities found at State and county fairs do require the exhibitors to be licensed under the AWA.
Wildpro (registered trademark) Electronic Encyclopaedia
Wildlife Information Network (WIN).
Freely searchable online, this site provides information on the health and management of captive and free-living wild animals and emerging infectious diseases.
Guidelines for Zoo and Aquarium Veterinary Medical Programs and Veterinary Hospitals
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.
These guidelines cover veterinary medical programs at zoos including staffing, medical treatment and surgery, preventative medicine, management issues, and veterinary facilities.
The Welfare of Zoo Animals
British & Irish Association of Zoos & Aquariums (BIAZA).
Summarizes animal welfare concerns for zoological parks and aquariums.
Design and Construction of Animal Exhibits
ZooLex Zoo Design Organization.
A bibliography, including links to abstracts, web sites, and full-text articles when available, on zoo design.
National Wildlife Health Center
DOI. United States Geological Survey.
Provides information on research related to wildlife disease and mortality. Publications available include current health bulletins, fact sheets, and the Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases.
Animal Diversity Web
University of Michigan. Museum of Zoology.
An online database of animal natural history, distribution, classification, and conservation biology. Provides taxonomic description of organization above the species level, such as phyla, classes, orders, and families.
Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Interim Report, 2004
National Academies Press.
This online book presents the results of a science-based review of the National Zoo in five chapters: introduction and background; animal care and management; record keeping; pest management; and mission and strategic planning.
Compendium of Measures To Prevent Disease Associated with Animals in Public Settings, March 2005
National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.
Multiple venues exist where public contact with animals is permitted. Persons responsible for managing these venues are encouraged to use the information in this report to reduce risk.
Animal Welfare Policy Statements
American Veterinary Medical Association.
Position statements covering recommendations on antimicrobial use, euthanasia, abuse, pain, and other important animal welfare concerns.