Although the Animal Welfare Act only requires environmental enrichment programs for nonhuman primates in regulated facilities, many zoos and aquariums are incorporating enrichment into the husbandry routines for all animals. In this section, you will find resources with information on providing environmental enrichment to animals housed in zoos and aquariums.
Search for Scientific Literature on Environmental Enrichment
Click on the following resources for scientific literature about environmental enrichment.
What is enrichment? (PDF | 44 KB)
American Association of Zoo Keepers.
Provides an overview of environmental enrichment, particularly as it applies to zoos.
USDA Perspective on Environmental Enrichment for Animals (PDF | 275 KB)
This article provides a brief history of the 1985 Animal Welfare Act (AWA) amendments and information on implementation of the regulations regarding exercise for dogs and environmental enhancement for nonhuman primates.
Animal Enrichment Program
Disney's Animal Kingdom (registered trademark) Theme Park.
Provides information about an enrichment framework used to devise enrichment programs. Includes an introduction to enrichment and steps to set up and evaluate an enrichment program.
The Shape of Enrichment's Safety Database
Shape of Enrichment.
This database allows you to search by animal taxa, enrichment device/materials, and hazard.
A Keeper's Guide to Evaluating Environmental Enrichment (PDF | 53 KB)
British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums.
Information for zoo keepers on developing enrichment goals, evaluating enrichment programs, measuring behavior, and analyzing results.
Disney's Animal Kingdom (R) Theme Park.
This web site outlines animal training programs and provides information on what training is, how animals learn, and how behavior can be shaped using positive reinforcement.
Articles on Environmental Enrichment
This web site provides links to articles on environmental enrichment for zoo animals. There are general articles as well as species-specific information.
The Shape of Enrichment, Inc.
The Shape of Enrichment was founded in 1991 as a partnership to further animal enrichment efforts worldwide. Articles written in the quarterly publication are dedicated to exchanging enrichment ideas among animal caretakers. Past articles include enrichment techniques for exotic pigs, large ungulates, and a variety of bird species, as well as many other animals.
Zoo Enrichment Programs
Links to environmental enrichment programs outlined by zoos around the world.
E: Enrichment, Environment, & Education
Use the drop-down box on the left side of the page to navigate to articles about enrichment for canines, equines, nonhuman primates, birds and more.
Resources for applied ethology.
Zoo Animal Welfare Boosted by Environmental Enrichment, Positive Reinforcement Training
American Veterinary Medicine Association.
This article discusses the idea of positive reinforcement training and enrichment improving an animal's welfare.
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium's: What is Enrichment?
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium.
Provides enrichment information for animals at the Columbus Zoo.
Managing Animal Behaviour through Environmental Enrichment with Emphasis in Rescue and Rehabilitation Centres
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust.
A publication aimed to evaluate the use of environmental enrichment for rehabilitating confiscated animals, with an emphasis on Latin American rescue and rehabilitation centers.