Nonhuman Primates

Common Marmoset Care

This interactive site provides information on common marmoset behavior and care. It is jointly produced by the University of Sterling, Primate Society of Great Britain, and the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs).


Orangutan Orangutan SSP Husbandry Manual

Brookfield Zoo.

Provides chapters on health, husbandry, behavior, and nutrition of orangutans in captivity.


Black and white close-up of an adult gorilla Annotated Database on Environmental Enrichment and Refinement of Husbandry for Nonhuman Primates

Animal Welfare Institute.

This searchable online bibliography offers animal caregivers, animal technicians, veterinarians, zoo keepers and students guidance to practical information on refinement and environmental enrichment for primates kept in research institutions.


Primates: The Taxonomy and General Characteristics of Prosimians, Monkeys, Apes, and Human

Palomar College. Behavioral Sciences Department.

This web page tutorial includes flash cards, fact sheets, and crossword puzzles about primate classification, taxonomy, vision, and natural history.


Rhesus monkeys grooming Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide, 2014

USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

A bibliographic resource on nonhuman primate enrichment, including relevant web links, organizations, and product information.


A young gorilla eating leaves Ape TAG

Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Ape Taxon Advisory Group.

Provides information on the management of gibbons and great apes in captivity and conservation issues.


Golden-lion tamarins Environmental Enrichment for Captive Marmosets and Tamarins

Primate Care.

A discussion of the criteria constituting a good captive environment for all animals: good physical health, breeding success, and the ability to cope with the environmental. These principles are applied to the care of marmosets and tamarins.


Food, Behavioral Enrichment, and Primates: Some Guidelines (PDF | 128 KB)

Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Nutrition Advisory Group Subcommittee on Enrichment.

These guidelines are designed to be a reference for zoo professionals on how food can be used for enrichment without compromising the nutritional integrity of the diet.


Cotton-top tamarin Cotton-top Tamarin SSP

American Zoo and Aquarium Association. Species Survival Plan Program.

This site includes the Cotton-top Tamarin Husbandry Manual as well as other resources to help you learn more about these tamarins and their natural and captive environments.


Occupational Primate Disease Safety Guidelines for Zoological Institutions (DOC | 195 KB)

American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

Based on current scientific knowledge and accepted practices, these guidelines provide recommendations for managing nonhuman primates in zoos in a manner that minimizes the risk of exposure while maintaining the animals' quality of life.


Articles on Environmental Enrichment and Psychological Well-being

Laboratory Primate Newsletter.

Links to enrichment articles and divided into sub-headings such as social enrichment, training, foraging and feeding enrichment, toys and non-food related objects, and measures of stress and well-being.


The Psychological Well-being of Nonhuman Primates

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research.

Online text of a report that recommends ways to assess and promote psychological well-being of nonhuman primates.


Environmental Enrichment - Operant Conditioning

Wisconsin National Primate Research Center. Primate Info Net.

Compiled in 1996, provides a listing of articles published related to the use of operant conditioning in training nonhuman primates.


Environmental Enrichment for Neotropical Primates

SciELO Brazil.

Provides a review of the literature on enrichment procedures for neotropical primates in captivity.


Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates

The National Academies. National Research Council.

The book covers natural dietary habits, gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, species-specific nutrient needs, the impact on nutrition of physiological conditions and life-stages, and environmental enrichment such as opportunities for foraging.